Evidence-Based Interventions

  • LINCS (Wedel, Deshler, & Schumaker, ’88) 

  • Word Associations (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, ’02)
Students are asked to connect their new vocabulary with another more familiar word, phrase or concept.  Avoid using synonyms and instead focus on associative words.
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  • Four Square (Armbruster & Osborne, 2001)

  • Prefixes 
Kirk, C., Gillon, GT. (2009). Integrated morphological awareness intervention as a tool for improving literacy. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools 40(3): 341-351.

  • Context Clues (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, ’02)

  • Semantic Feature Analysis (Anders & Bos ’86)

  • Story Mapping
Boulineau T, Fore III C, Hagan-Burke S, Burke MD. (2004). Use of Story-Mapping to Increase the Story-Grammar Text Comprehension of Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 27(2): 105-121 

  • Social Stories 
Adams, L., Gouvousis, A., VanLue, M. & Waldron, C. (2004). Social story intervention: Improving communication skills in a child with an autism spectrum disorder. Focus on autism and other developmental disabilities, 19. 87-94. 

  • Rehearsal with Visualization 
Gill, C.B. Klecan-Aker, J., Roberts, T., Fredenburg, K.A. (2003). Following directions: Rehearsal and visualization strategies for children with specific language impairment. Child Language Teaching and Therapy vol. 19 no. 1 85-103.

Students repeat and visualize direction prior to doing it.

Bothe AK, Davidow JH, Bramlett RE, Ingham RJ. (2006). Stuttering treatment research 1970-2005: I. Systematic review incorporating trial quality assessment of behavioral, cognitive, and related approaches. American Journal of Speech Language Pathology 15(4): 321-341 .

This review suggested that response-contingent principles are the predominant feature of the most powerful treatment procedures for young children who stutter. The most powerful treatments for adults, with respect to both speech outcomes and social, emotional, or cognitive outcomes, appear to combine variants of prolonged speech, self-management, response contingencies, and other infrastructural variables.

Kirk, C., Gillon, GT. (2007). Longitudinal Effects of Phonological Awareness Intervention on Morphological Awareness in Children with Speech Impairment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools.  38(4): 342-352

Demonstrates that phonological awareness benefits students with speech impairments in the areas of reading and math. 


  • Rvachew, S. (1994). Speech Perception Training Can Facilitate Sound Production Learning. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 37(2): 347-357.
This study demonstrated that listening to correct and incorrect sounds and being able to differentiate them aids in the ability to articulate target sounds.
  • Van Riper Approach (Van Riper, ’78) 

  • 5 Minute Kids (Sexton, Seth ’06)

Please help me make this page grow! If you know of any evidence-based interventions and find them helpful, please send me:
1. The strategy
2. The research citation
3. activities or links that support the strategy

A great resource is: http://www.speechbite.com.  Let's make this page grow together! Post comments below to add to this page or email me at nrallison@gmail.com. 


  1. What a wonderful idea! Thanks for creating this page!

  2. I agree. This is a fabulous idea. Thanks for thinking of making it available.

  3. I was just talking to a parent and needed a social story reference... where did I do to first? Here!! Thanks!!

    1. WhooHoo! So glad it has helped! I also just saw that social video modeling is a great evidence-based intervention. I need to add it to my list!

  4. I just guest blogged last week over on Let's Talk Speech-Langauge Pathology (http://letstalkslp.blogspot.com/2013/02/guest-post-using-hodsons-cycles.html) about Hodson's Cycles approach to phonological process remediation. On the last page I have the references I used to make this PPT. Not sure if this is what you are looking for but those two resources might help.


Nicole Allison